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OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

The ability to perceive, desire, recall, plan and carry out roles, routines, tasks and sub-tasks.

The ability to perceive, desire, recall, plan and carry out roles, routines, tasks and sub-tasks for the purpose of self-maintenance, productivity, leisure and rest in response to demands of the internal and/or external environment. Occupational therapists (OTs) help people of all ages to improve their ability to perform tasks in their daily living and working environments. They work with individuals who have conditions that are mentally, physically, developmentally, socially or emotionally disabling. They also help them to develop, recover, or maintain daily living and work skills. Occupational therapists help clients not only to improve their basic motor functions and reasoning abilities (LIKE PHYSICAL EXERCISES , increase strength, &dexterity, visual acuity,hand eye coordination, problem solving approaches,memory and perceptual training,), but also to compensate for permanent loss of function all of which are important for independent living. .

AUTISM INTERVENTION

Early intervention is crucial for AUTISM. It is very important to remember that one method or intervention may not work for every child.

Remember that your child is unique, and work with their strengths to help them in the best way possible. Treatment of AUTISM can help your child navigate through social challenges, capitalize on his or her strengths, and be successful. Before we get into the types of therapies available, it is helpful to take a step back and look at the bigger picture. it remains a complex disorder that impacts each child differently. However, many children with AS/HFA have made remarkable breakthroughs with the right combinations of therapies and interventions. Most parents would welcome a therapy that would alleviate all of the challenges that make life difficult for their child. Just as your child’s challenges can’t be summed up in one word, they can’t be remedied with one therapy. Each challenge must be addressed with an appropriate therapy. No single therapy works for every child. What works for one child may not work for another. What works for one child for a period of time may stop working. Some therapies are supported by research showing their efficacy, while others are not. The skill, experience, and style of the therapist are critical to the effectiveness of the intervention.

Parent Education and Training

Parent training can be especially beneficial to the improvement of children with AS/HFA.

If caregivers such as parents, grandparents, siblings, babysitters, etc. are fully aware of and understand the strengths and deficits of the child, they will be able to incorporate aspects of successful treatment options like social skills training into the child’s life at home. The more children with AS are exposed to social skills and behavior training, the more likely they are to improve their behavior. Parents and other caregivers can learn how to effectively implement treatment mechanisms into the child’s everyday life. Treatment then becomes consistent and routine for children with AS.

Social Skills Training and Speech-Language Therapy

Children with AUTISM can expand and improve their social skills through training and therapy.

Though children with AS may have strong language skills, it is important that they learn how to express their thoughts and feelings appropriately. Their ability to interact with others can improve with lots of practice and explicit teaching. Therapists often teach social skills to children with AS/HFA using visual techniques such as social stories, or using exercises that involve the children in various social situations. Social skills groups have proved to be very beneficial to children with AS in teaching them how to interact with their peers. Speech and language therapy may also help these children to communicate better. This therapy could correct awkward methods of speaking such as monotone, and help children to better understand and interpret the speech and communication signals of others such as humor, eye contact, and hand gestures.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is used primarily to help individuals with AS regulate their emotions, develop impulse control.

Emotions, develop impulse control, and improve their behavior as a result. In addition, some individuals with AS/HFA struggle with fears and anxiety, or may become depressed. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to be helpful for reducing anxious and depressed feelings and behavior by making changes in thoughts and perceptions of situations through a change in cognition. The key ingredient of CBT, which distinguishes it from regular behavior therapy, is working on this change in cognition or how thinking is processed. Therapists seek to reduce challenging behaviors, such as interruptions, obsessions, meltdowns or angry outbursts, while also teaching individuals how to become familiar with and manage certain feelings that may arise. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be individualized for each patient, and as a result, is very effective at improving very specific behaviors and challenges in each child or young adult. Stabilizing emotions and improving behavior allows those with AS to prepare for and respond more appropriately in specific situations.

Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA)

ABA, has been used by hundreds of therapists to teach communication, play, social, academic, self-care, work, and community living skills, and to reduce problem behaviors in learners with autism.

There now is a great deal of research literature that demonstrates that ABA is effective for improving children’s outcomes, especially their cognitive and language abilities. Over the past several decades, different treatment models using ABA have emerged, all of which use behavioral teaching. They all use strategies that are based on the work of B.F. Skinner. ABA is often difficult to understand until you see it in action. It may be helpful to start by describing what all of the different methods of ABA have in common.

SENSORY INTEGRATION

Ayres' Sensory Integration is a theory that describes how the neurological process of processing and integrating sensory information from the body and the environment contribute to emotional regulation, learning, behavior, and participation in daily life,empirically derived disorders of sensory integration and an intervention approach.

The brain must organize all of our sensations if a person is to move and learn and behave in a productive manner". Our senses give us information about the physical conditions of our body and the environment around us.The neurological process of sensory integration is a "particular way of viewing the neural organization of sensory information for functional behavior". It is studied by different professions on diverse levels, such as by occupational therapists as a foundation for occupational performance and participation, by psychologists on a cellular level as Multi-Sensory Integration. As a theory, Sensory Integration is "a dynamic and ecological theory that specifies the critical influence of sensory processing on human development and function"."It contributes to the understanding of how sensation affects learning, social-emotional development, and neurophysiological processes, such as motor performance, attention, and arousal". People with Sensory Integrative dysfunction experience problems with their sense of touch, smell, hearing, taste, sight, body coordination, and movement against gravity. Along with this might possibly be difficulties in movement, coordination and sensing where one's body is in a given space. According to proponents of sensory integration therapy, Sensory integrative dysfunction is a common disorder for individuals with neurological learning disabilities such as an autism spectrum disorder,attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,and sensory modulation dysfunction.

SPECIAL EDUCATION

Special education (also known as special needs education, aided education, exceptional education or Special Ed) is the practice of educating students with special educational needs in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs.

Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, and accessible settings. These interventions are designed to help individuals with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and in their community, that may not be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education. Common special needs include learning disabilities (such as dyslexia), communication disorders, emotional and behavioral disorders(such as ADHD and ADD), physical disabilities (such as Brittle Bone Disease, Cerebral Palsy, Muscular Dystrophy, Spinal Bifida, and Fredrich’s Ataxia), and developmental disabilities (such as autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability). Students with these kinds of special needs are likely to benefit from additional educational services such as different approaches to teaching, the use of technology, a specifically adapted teaching area, or a resource room. A special education program should be customized to address each individual student's unique needs. Special educators provide a continuum of services, in which students with special needs receives varying degrees of support based on their individual needs. Special education programs need to be individualized so that they address the unique combination of needs in a given student.

EARLY INTERVENTION

Early intervention means doing things as early as possible to work on your child's developmental, health and support needs. Early intervention services give specialized support to children and families in the early years (from birth to school entry).

Early intervention means doing things as early as possible to work on your child’s developmental, health and support needs. Early intervention services give specialized support to children and families in the early years (from birth to school entry). This support might include special education, occupational therapy, counselling, service planning and help getting universal services like school and play to all children, such as child and family health services, kindergartens, community health centers, regional parenting services, child care services, play groups and occasional care. Starting intervention as early as possible is the best way to support the development of children with disability.

Hand therapy

Occupational Therapy also plays a major role in the rehabilitation and recovery of patients who have hand as well and upper and lower extremity injuries.

They play a significant role in liaising with Hand Surgeon/Orthopeadic Surgeon and patients employers in providing the best client centered rehabilitation program. Occupational Therapist treats conditions ranging from soft tissue injuries such as Tennis Elbows to nerve neuropathies such as Cubital Tunnel Syndrome/ Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Treatment modalities such as orthosis/splints, soft braces and education are some of the common treatment tool that an occupational therapist will use during treatment. Hand Therapy is a specialised field of occupational therapy. It is definitely an area where Occupational Therapy is famous for due to the therapeutic models that the profession practices which focus on occupation as means and ends and their aim of returning patients to them performing their daily functions.

PHYSIOTHERAPY

Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the Allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements [Bio-mechanics or Kinesiology], Manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.

Physical therapy is used to improve a patient's quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and physical intervention. It is performed by physical therapists (known as physiotherapists in many countries). In addition to clinical practice, other activities encompassed in the physical therapy profession include research, education, consultation, and administration. Physical therapy services may be provided as primary care treatment or alongside, or in conjunction with, other medical services

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Progressive Milestones Center have been specifically established to revolutionize the way therapy is available for children with special needs – holistic inter-disciplinary therapy with world class facilities and equipment, a unique therapy administration and service implementation system, and most importantly, inclusion of the family in therapy.

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